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Within-School Heterogeneity in Quality: Do Schools Provide Equal Value Added to All Students?

Low-socioeconomic status (SES), minority, and male students perform worse than their high-SES, non-minority, and female peers on standardized tests. This paper investigates how within-school differences in school quality contribute to these educational achievement gaps. Using individual-level data on the universe of public-school students in California, I estimate school quality using a value added methodology that accounts for the fact that students sort to schools on observable characteristics. I allow for within-school heterogeneity by estimating a distinct value added for each school's low-/high-SES, minority/non-minority, and male/female students. Standard value added models suggest that on average schools provide less value added to their low-SES, minority, and male students, particularly on postsecondary enrollment. However, value added models that control for neighborhood, older-sibling, and peer characteristics suggest that schools provide similar value added to low-/high-SES students and minority/non-minority students but more value added to female students. Within-school heterogeneity accounts for 6% of the test-score achievement gap and 22% of the difference in postsecondary enrollment between men and women.

Achievement gaps; School quality; Value added
Education level
Document Object Identifier (DOI)

EdWorkingPaper suggested citation:

Naven, Matthew. (). Within-School Heterogeneity in Quality: Do Schools Provide Equal Value Added to All Students?. (EdWorkingPaper: 23-778). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University:

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